A greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) is an itera- tive multistart metaheuristic for difficult combinatorial optimization problems. Each GRASP iteration consists of two phases: a construction phase, in which a feasible solution is produced, and a local search phase, in which a local optimum in the neighborhood of the constructed solution is sought. Repeated applications of the con- struction procedure yields different starting solutions for the local search and the best overall solution is kept as the result. The GRASP local search applies iterative improvement until a locally optimal solution is found. During this phase, starting from the current solution an improving neighbor solution is accepted and considered as the new current solution. In this paper, we propose a variant of the GRASP framework that uses a new “nonmonotone” strategy to explore the neighborhood of the current solu- tion. We formally state the convergence of the nonmonotone local search to a locally optimal solution and illustrate the effectiveness of the resulting Nonmonotone GRASP on three classical hard combinatorial optimization problems: the maximum cut prob- lem (MAX-CUT), the weighted maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-SAT), and the quadratic assignment problem (QAP).